Ted London


Ted London

United States of America

Senior Research Fellow & Director, Base of the Pyramid Initiative

Ross School of Business, William Davidson Institute, University of Michigan

Business strategy

Details on main field of study / representative publications

Representative Publications:

  • London T. & Esper H. 2014. Assessing poverty-alleviation outcomes of an enterprise-led approach to sanitation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Online version published: 12 Feb 2014).

  • London, T., Esper, H., Grogan-Kaylor, A. & Kistruck, G. M. 2014. Connecting poverty to purchase in informal markets, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 8(1): 37-55.

  • London, T. 2012. The impact of a scholar’s career: More than just the usual numbers for Jagdish Bhagwati. Advances in International Management. 25: 15-22.

  • London, T. and Anupindi, R. 2012. Using the base-of-the-pyramid perspective to catalyze interdependence-based collaborations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(31): 12338-12343 (on-line version published April 11, 2011).

  • London, T., & Hart, S. (Editors). 2011. Next Generation Business Strategies for the Base of the Pyramid: New Approaches for Building Mutual Value. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press (forthcoming). (Co-authors include Hammond, Kennedy, Novogratz, Simanis, Viswanathan, and Whitney).

  • London, T. 2011. Building better venture with the base of the pyramid. In London, T. & Hart, S. (Eds). Next Generation Business Strategies for the Base of the Pyramid: New Approaches for Building Mutual Value. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press (forthcoming).

  • London, T., Anupindi, R., & Sheth, S. 2010. Creating mutual value: Lessons learned from serving base of the pyramid producers. Journal of Business Research. 63(6): 582-594.

  • London, T. 2009. Making better investments at the base of the pyramid. Harvard Business Review. 87(5): 106-113.

  • London, T. 2007. A Base-of-the-Pyramid Perspective on Poverty Alleviation. Washington, DC: United Nations Development Program. Growing Inclusive Markets Working Paper Series.

  • Milstein, M. B., London, T., & Hart, S. L. 2007. Revolutionary routines: Capturing the opportunity for creating a more inclusive capitalism. Handbook of Transformative Cooperation. Stanford University Press, pp. 84-103.

  • London, T., Rondinelli, D. A., & O’Neill, H. 2005. Strange bedfellows: Alliances between corporations and non-profits. In Shenkar, O. & J. Reuer (Eds.), Handbook of Strategic Alliances. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication, pp. 353-366.

  • Hart, S. L., & London, T. 2005. Developing native capability: What multinational corporations can learn from the base of the pyramid. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 3(2): 28-33.

  • London, T., & Hart, S. L. 2004. Reinventing strategies for emerging markets: Beyond the transnational model. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(5): 350-370.

  • London, T., & Rondinelli, D. A. 2003. Partnerships for learning: Managing tensions in nonprofit organizations’ alliances with corporations, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1(3): 28-35.

  • Rondinelli, D. A., & London, T. 2003. How corporations and environmental groups collaborate: Assessing cross-sector alliances and collaborations. Academy of Management Executive, 17(1): 61-76.

  • Rondinelli, D. A., & London, T. 2002. Stakeholder and corporate responsibilities in cross-sectoral environmental collaborations: Building value, legitimacy and trust. In J. Andriof, S. Waddock, B. Husted & S. Rahman (Eds.), Unfolding Stakeholder Thinking. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing, pp. 201-215.


Ted London is a Senior Research Fellow at the William Davidson Institute (WDI) and on the faculty at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business. At WDI, he directs the Base of the Pyramid Initiative, a program that champions innovative ways of thinking about more inclusive forms of capitalism. At the Ross School, he offers courses to graduate students and executives on the opportunities and challenges in developing new business models to serve BoP markets.

A leading expert on the intersection of business strategy and poverty alleviation, Dr. London focuses on designing enterprise strategies and poverty alleviation approaches for low-income markets, developing market-entry capabilities, building cross-sector collaborations, and assessing poverty reduction outcomes of business ventures. His numerous articles, chapters, reports, and cases emphasize creating new knowledge with actionable implications.

Over the past two decades, Dr. London has directed and advised leadership teams in the corporate, non-profit, and development sectors on designing and implementing market-based strategies in low-income markets. These organizations include Abt Associates, Acumen Fund, AED, Altria, CARE, CEMEX, Coca-Cola, Department for International Development (DFID), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), DuPont, GE Healthcare, Grassroots Business Fund, Hershey, Hewlett-Packard, Inter-American Development Bank (IBD), International Finance Corporation (IFC), Kumi Hospital, McKinsey Consulting, Microsoft, Pfizer, SC Johnson, Technoserve, Unilever, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), U.S.-Asia Environmental Partnership, VisionSpring, Wachovia, and the X-Prize. He also currently sits on several advisory boards and shares his research in venues across the globe.

Prior to coming to the University of Michigan, London was on the faculty at the University of North Carolina, where he also received his Ph.D. Before that, he held senior management positions in the private, non-profit, and development sectors on three continents.

Teaching material

  • Business Strategies for the Base of the Pyramid

    This course stimulates leadership skills and understanding of the BoP. Class sessions will engage students in discussions aimed at identifying the prospects and challenges associated with serving BoP markets and developing strategies, business models, partnerships, and mindsets required to explore these opportunities.

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